SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
AN ANALYSIS OF TEACHER TALK
IN HARAPAN JAYA KINDERGARTEN
SEPANG JAYA BANDAR LAMPUNG
(For First Language Classroom)
NAME : DONI ALFARUQY
SRN : 0743042007
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT (S1)
SCHOOL OF TEACHER AND EDUCATION
A. Background Problem
The teacher talk is one of variation in order to study second language acquisition in native speaker context.The writer wants to compare and study about teacher talk to student, students, and teacher.These variations language are interesting to be studied.The writer assumes that there are differences in teacher talk to various age, context, and situation in native classroom.Then, the writer wants to analyze the factors which can help to deliver the message whom speaker to. Therefore, the writer will record the dialogue during the teaching-learning classroom in harapan jaya kindergarten among teacher talk, student, students, and teacher in Indonesian language.Lastly, the writer create the dialogue into transcript to look for the problem during the communication process and its solution.
B. Theoritical Foundation
The kind of language used by the teacher for instruction in the classroom is known as teacher talk (TT). For this term, Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics defines it as “that variety of language sometimes used by teachers when they are in the process of teaching. In trying to communicate with learners, teachers often simplify their speech, giving it many of the characteristics of foreigner talk and other simplified styles of speech addressed to language learners” (Richards, 1992: 471).
Having studied the SLA for many years, Rod Ellis (1985) has formulated his own
view about teacher talk: “Teacher talk is the special language that teachers use when
addressing L2 learners in the classroom. There is systematic simplification of the formal
properties of the teacher’s language… studies of teacher talk can be divided into those
that investigate the type of language that teachers use in language classrooms and those
that investigate in the type of language they use in subject lessons.” He also commented
“the language that teachers address to L2 learner is treated as a register, with its own
specific formal and linguistics properties” (Ellis, 1985: 145).
The characteristics of teacher talk (Wong – Fillmore, 1985) :
1. The talk has clear separation of languages (no alteration or mixing)
2. The talk emphasizes on comprehension, it focuses on communication by :
• Use of demonstration, enactment to convey meaning
• New informaton presented in context of known information
• Heavy message redundancy
3. The language used is entirely grammatical, appropriate to the activiy by :
• Using simple structure, avoiding complex structure
• Repeating the use of some sentence patterns or routines
• Using repetitiveness, using paraphrase for variation
4. The talk use tailoring of eliciatation questions to allow for different levels of participation from students.
5. The talk has richness of language use, going beyond books, playfullness.
Those characteristics have teacher talk to various variation in language use so that the teacher talk probably has more variation and communication to all aspects for whom to speaker talk.Once again, the focus is to communicate clearly with all speakers in various age.
As we know, children still acquire the native language in this period.They still have time to learn how to speak and use their own language correctly
Teacher : Ms Dian Putri
Address : Jln Bayangkara no 3 Sepang jaya Bandar Lampung
Institution : Harapan Jaya Kindergarten
Students are 4-5 Years old
TRANSCRIPT DIALOGUE FROM TEACHER TALK TO STUDENTS
Teacher = T
Student = S
Students = Ss
T = Selamat pagi !! anak – anak, apa kabar ?
Ss = baik bu guru (sitting arround)
T = sebelum memulai pelajaran mari kita berdoa terlebih dahulu.Berdoa mulai
Ss = membaca doa mau belajar (pray together)
T = Baik, anak- anak hari ini kita akan belajar tentang berhitung, kalian suka berhitung ?
Ss = mmmm suka bu, tidak (various answers)
T = Ya baik, sekarang coba kita latihan berhitung.Kalian siap ? ayo duduk yang rapi (Sound loudly)
Ss = Baik bu,
T = Ayo kita mulai berhitung dari 1 – 10.Ayo yang keras suaranya, mulutnya dibuka lebar-lebar ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10(Teacher points the number on the whiteboard)
Ss = Baik bu, satu, dua, tiga, empat, lima, enam, tujuh, delapan, sembilan, sepuluh (say together twice).
T = Iya pintar, baik sekarang kita akan berhitung dengan bahasa Inggris, kalian siap ? ayo semuanya duduk yang rapi.Yang tidak berhitung tidak boleh istirahat.
Ss = Baik bu,
T = Ayo, ikuti kata-kata ibu, 1 = one 2 = two 3 = three 4 = four 5 = Five 6 = Six 7 = Seven 8 = Eight 9 = Nine 10 = Ten ( T points the number and words in whiteboard.
Ss = one, two, three, four, five , six,seven, eight, nine, ten.(say together twice)
T = Bagus anak-anak, ayo Pandi dan wahyu, kalian jangan berdiri ayo perhatikan bu guru.Sekarang kita akan berhitung dengan menggunakan bahasa arab.Ibu harap kalian masih ingat, ya ? ayo lihat ke tangan ibu ada Kartu kita baca secara bersama ? ( T points the cards)
Ss = 1 = sa’i, 2 = ismi, 3 = Salasa 4 =raka’at, 5 = empa 6 =isha 7 = saba’a 8 = bi’ah 9 = ishah 10 = asaru ( say together twice)
T = Bagus, mari tepuk tangan. Nah, tidak terasa, waktu istirahat telah tiba mari kita tutup dengan mengucap lafadz hamdalah.
Ss = Alhamdulilahirobilalamin ( say together) Yeaah…
TRANSCRIPT DIALOGUE FROM TEACHER TALK TO STUDENT
T = Assalamualikum Wr Wb, ayo semuanya, hari ini kita akan belajar tentang membaca kalimat dengan bai.Ayo semunya perhatikan.
S = Wassalamualaikum Wr Wb Baik bu.
T = Ayo Andi, kamu maju ke depan, coba baca tulisan di papan tulis (points whiteboard) Budi pergi ke pasar
S = Budi pergi ke pasar
T = Ayah sedang mengendarai mobil
S = Ayah sedang me-ngen-darai mobil ( little difficult to pronounce)
T = Bagus, beri tepuk tangan untuk Andi.Nah sekarang giliran, Rani, untuk maju ke depan
S =ah malu bu, tidak mau ( shaking head as disagreement)
T = Ayo kamu harus berani.Katanya mau jadi Dokter, masak disuruh maju ke depan saja sudah takut.
S = Baik bu
T = Rani, sekarang coba baca ini, Bandar Lampung adalah tempat tinggalku
S = Bandar Lam-pung adalah tempat ting-galku.
T = Saya sangat bahagia tinggal disini
S = Saya sangat bahagia tinggal disini ( read aloud)
T = Waah, bagus Rani, tetap berlatih membaca ya.
TRANSCRIPT DIALOGUE FROM TEACHER TALK TO TEACHER
Teacher A = T1
Teacher B = T2
T1 = Hai selamat pagi bu Rita, apa kabar ? BTW bagaimana soal masalah yang di kelas matahari ?
T2 = Ya pagi juga, ohh masalah itu, ya sudah diselesaikan orang tua siswa nya telah datang dan menemui pihak yang dirugikan jadi masalah nya sudah clear..
T1 = mmm, ya syukurlah, oh ya bu Rita sudah denger kabar terbaru tentang ibu kepala ?
T2 = Belum, memangnya ada kabar apa ?
T1 = Itu loh, katanya ia mau membuat suatu program pengembangan diri untuk meningkatkan prestasi guru dan murid.
T2 = ooh, bagus-bagus, contohnya seperti apa programnya.
T1 = Ya seperti, Training motivasi, program reward & punishmet, atau Travelling.Ya seperti program-program bermanfaat yang dipakai ditempat lain
T2 = Wow keren.Ya semoga itu semua dapat berjalan dengan baik
T1 = amin, ya sudah dulu ngobrolnya, saya mau ada perlu permisi
T2 = Ya mari
Dialogue Analysis :
As we know from Children’s psychology (Folk ; 2007) children in age at least 5 years old that still acquire the first language so that in this period, children need to practice and drill their first language as many as they can.Therefore, the dialogue happens in first language setting in order to improve students’’ linguistic competence.
First of all, the writer wants to reveal the finding during the teacher talk dialogue. It can be showed that teacher teaches students in group probably she will use words “kami” , imperative words, and special trick to atrract students” attention e.g : use cards, pictures, or other medias.And then for teacher who teaches student invidually, she will use personal treatment and more focus in teaching the lesson, her attention only for one student so that the result of lesson will be better.Another finding is that teacher who teaches children will use the correct and complete sentence in order to make students easily understand.On the other hand, if the teacher talk to teacher in the same institution.She will use uncomplete sentence and uncorrect grammatical.Because there is different purpose in doing communication.If the teacher talk to teacher, they have the same background about the discussion topic.Then, the teachers have communicative purpose to onlt to communicate so that it does not matter if the sentence is uncomplete or ungrammatical as long as they understand each other.But, if the teacher teaches students the main purpose is to make them understand about using the language correctly.
The writer wants to analyze and compare the dialogues which consist of Teacher-talk to student, students, and teacher in kindergarten level for several perspectives , (real vs simulated) and linguistic differences ( in terms of phonology, lexical, syntactic, and discourse differences).These views taken from Chaudron (1998) who made summary of teacher talk in SLA classroom.
A. Real Vs Simulated
Based on dialogue, There is a clear differences between teacher- talk to student or students in real condition and in simulated condition.If in real condition the interaction between teacher and students happen smoothy but in simulated condition, there is a gap between teacher and students in order to do communication because the situation has been setted up by the planner.Therefore, the teacher-talk in real condition is more valid to be data in certain research.
B. Linguistic Differences
In phonology, the teacher-talk dialogue has several differences between teacher –talk to student,students and teacher.In intonation, teacher who teaches students in one time will be exaggerated intonation, and fewer contractions of verb phrase constituents often accompany the slower rate of speech during the teaching learning in classroom.For teacher talk to student personally.She will be more careful articulation and reduction of vowel and consonants clusters.As the result, the teacher must consider her intonation and words choice before they teach their students.
Children (5 years old) have the lack of vocabulary to access some information.They are still learning to express their idea into correct sentence and form.They need time to acquire the first language so that teacher need to use the simple vocabulary in order to make the clear explanation to their students.The most important thing, teacher does not use the idioms or complex sentence in teaching.Hopefully, all the times, teacher doesn’t use too many variations in teaching English.
There are some modifications in teacher – talk to students.It means teacher will use the complete sentence and correct grammar during the teaching – learning process in order to make students easily.These will be useful in imperative sentence, statement, and questions.Again, the teacher wants to ask their students to repeat what she has pronounced.So, the repetition is the key to make students familiar with the correct sentence.
• Discourse differences
Different learners will have different idea in order to express their idea in written form.Teachers in kindergarten will use more imperative sentences, questions and repetitive technique.Teachers actually wants to create easier mmaterial and simple expression in oral and written form.Based on the dialogue, the writer assumes that discourse differences are relevant as long as the students’’ need can be understood
There are several views in analyzing the dialogue.They are Tasks (real vs simuated) and linguistic differences (phonology, syntax, lexical ,and discourse differences).Then, all of them exsist in teacher talk to student, students, and teacher because there are different purpose in communicating and in transfering the knowledge to different ages, situation, setting and background knowledge.Finally, in first language classroom, the teacher’s clear explanation acquiring first language will influence their students to learn more successful about second language acquisition.
Brown, H. D. 2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (3rd Edition). Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
Chaudron, C. 1988. Second Language Classrooms: Research on Teaching and Learning.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Krashen, S.D. 1985. The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. New York:
Long, M. 1980. Input, Interaction and Second Language Acquisition. Unpublished PhD
dissertation. University of California at Los Angeles.
Yufrizal, 2008. Second Language Acquisition ; Pustaka Reka Cipta.Bandung